Cell Biology of Metals and Nutrients: 17 (Plant Cell Monographs)

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Glenda E. Ana M. Louise V. Johnathan A. Published on Dec View Download 6. G Vol. He obtained his B. Munnik serves on the editorial board of several international journals and has published over 70 original research papers and 7 book chapters. His current research is focused on studying phospholipid signaling in plant stress and development, using the model plant, Arabidop-sis thaliana. In the past decade, a completely novel and unexpected function emerged, fullfilling a crucial role in cell signaling.

It was the discovery in animal cells, that agonist-activated cell surface receptors led to the activation of a phospholipase C PLC , to hydrolyze the minor lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate into two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate InsP3 and diacylglycerol DAG. Over the years, a variety of other lipid based-signaling cascades were discov- ered.

These include, phospholipase A, generating lyso-phospholipids and free fatty acids to be converted into prostaglandins and leukotrienes , phospholipase D, to generate the lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid PA , and phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3K , generating a distinct set of polyphosphoinositides PPI phos- phorylated at the D3-position of the inositol ring, all with separate signaling functions.

Sphingolipids, representing another important group of signaling lipids, also came across. The majority of these lipid-based signaling pathways have been discovered in plant cells too. Moreover, they have been found to be activated in response to a wide variety of biotic and abiotic stress signals, but also to be basically involved in plant growth and development.

While many of the enzymes, lipids, and their targets involved are well conserved, major differences with the mammalian paradigms have also emerged. This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. All chapters have been written by experts in the field and cover information for both beginners and advanced lipidologists.

Ana M. Louise V. Johnathan A.

Plant Cell Monographs

Published on Dec View Download 6. G Vol. He obtained his B. Munnik serves on the editorial board of several international journals and has published over 70 original research papers and 7 book chapters.


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His current research is focused on studying phospholipid signaling in plant stress and development, using the model plant, Arabidop-sis thaliana. In the past decade, a completely novel and unexpected function emerged, fullfilling a crucial role in cell signaling. It was the discovery in animal cells, that agonist-activated cell surface receptors led to the activation of a phospholipase C PLC , to hydrolyze the minor lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate into two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate InsP3 and diacylglycerol DAG.

Over the years, a variety of other lipid based-signaling cascades were discov- ered. These include, phospholipase A, generating lyso-phospholipids and free fatty acids to be converted into prostaglandins and leukotrienes , phospholipase D, to generate the lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid PA , and phosphoinositide 3-kinase PI3K , generating a distinct set of polyphosphoinositides PPI phos- phorylated at the D3-position of the inositol ring, all with separate signaling functions. Sphingolipids, representing another important group of signaling lipids, also came across.

The majority of these lipid-based signaling pathways have been discovered in plant cells too. Moreover, they have been found to be activated in response to a wide variety of biotic and abiotic stress signals, but also to be basically involved in plant growth and development. While many of the enzymes, lipids, and their targets involved are well conserved, major differences with the mammalian paradigms have also emerged.

This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. All chapters have been written by experts in the field and cover information for both beginners and advanced lipidologists. Part I includes phospholipases Chaps. That was consistent with the expression of GmCnx1 gene in leaf and root. Taken together, it can be concluded that the different GmCnx1 levels among the different transgenic lines correspond to similar differences at NR and AO activities in leaf. Data were calculated by significance analysis method, and the significant differences were compared with the control.

After being infected by SMV-1 and SMV-7 mosaic virus strains, non-transgenic soybean plants showed dwarfing Fig 5a , mosaic leaves, browning veins and crimple leaves Fig 5b. In contrast, leaves of T 1 transgenic soybean plants remained green, showing no mosaic, shrinkage leaves and other symptoms. The results above indicated that the GmCnx1 transgenic soybean lines we generated showed higher degrees of resistance to two SMV strains tested.

Although soybean is one of the most important food and feed crops worldwide, its transformation efficiency is relatively low. In comparison with other crops, there are still several problems that need to be tackled such as difficulties in the regeneration potential of the tissues, low reproducibility, and greater genotypic differences[ 28 ].

In the light of these issues, we optimized several physical and chemical parameters of the standard Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation protocol for soybean, and obtained significantly improved results [ 29 ]. Here, in soybean, we successfully generated transgenic soybean plants for the GmCnx1 gene, validated the previous function of the gene in enhancing NR activity and unveiled the novel function of the gene in enhancing AO activity and SMV resistance.

Cnx1 is a functional protein with two domains, which are essential for catalyzing the insertion of Mo into MPT in plants [ 30 ]. E and G domains that were detected in Arabidopsis were involved in the activity of Cnx1 [ 14 ]. In the present study, the comparison of amino acid sequences of Cnx1 between Arabidopsis and soybean shows two highly conserved amino acid motifs involved in biosynthesis of molybdopterin cofactor present in soybean Fig 1b.

So it was predicted that these two domains would interact with each other for the function of GmCnx1, thus catalyzing the incorporation of Mo into MPT in soybean. According to Mendel et al. Moco-mutants have been described in numerous higher plants, for example, in tobacco [ 32 , 33 ], Nicotiana plumbaginigolia [ 34 ] and barley [ 35 ]. Cnx1 expression was found in all organs of Arabidopsis plants, and it was noted that transgenic Cnx1 gene could increase activity of NR and content of MPT [ 14 ]. Moreover, blockage of Moco biosynthesis due to mutations led to the impairment of essential metabolic functions because of the loss of functions of all Mo-dependent enzymes, which ultimately led to death of the organism [ 36 ].

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On the other hand, there is paucity of literature regarding AO activities in plants. Early reports showed in potato the presence of two isoenzymes for AO that are able to use diverse aldehydes but not xanthine as substrates [ 37 ]. The reduction of ABA levels due to the lack of AO activity had a direct impact on Moco-sulfurase deficiency [ 38 , 39 ]. A barley cnx mutant showed a thermo sensitive, wilty phenotype, which was attributed to an ABA deficiency due to the absence of activity of a Moco-dependent AO[ 40 ].

Cell Biology of Metals and Nutrients (Plant Cell Monographs, Volume 17)

We found that overexpression of GmCnx1 gene indeed enhanced activities of NR and AO in the transgenic soybean plants Figs 3 and 4 , consistent with previous studies in other plants. In addition, for evaluation of agronomic traits, three transgenic and three non-transgenic soybean plants were randomly sampled before flowering stage from the experimental greenhouse. Plant height, average leaf length, average leaf width, nodules number, fresh weight of nodules, root and shoot fresh weight, root and shoot dry weight and total biomass were measured S1 Table.

SMV seriously affects yield and quality of soybean globally. Due to its wide distribution, great harmfulness, and difficulties in chemical control, cultivating and planting resistant varieties is an economical, safe and effective way to prevent SMV. In the present study we aimed at checking the relationship between GmCnx1 gene and its function in plants with regards to SMV resistance. We therefore deduced that the GmCnx1 gene expression in soybean is probably related to the positive regulation on the resistance to SMV.

Lipid Signaling in Plants (Plant Cell Monographs, Volume 16)

Consistent with the results from the microarray experiments, our results showed that transgenic plants indeed have higher SMV resistance compared with non-transgenic plants after the virus infection Fig 6. In any case, this is the first report about the novel function of GmCnx1 against SMV, which has apparent breeding implications in soybean.

Solid arrows represent functions of GmCnx1 observed in this present work while dotted arrows represent future research prospective and open arrows show Moco-dependent enzymes that have been published in other research work [ 2 , 3 ]. This report provided valuable information on molecular breeding and improved our understanding of the biological and molecular functions of GmCnx1.

The Plant Cell - 13 Key Structures

These data provide a novel route for initiating molecular breeding to improve NR, AO activities and SMV resistance in soybean, a significant crop worldwide. A Seed sterilization by chlorine gas method. B Seed germination on GM for 1 d. D Co-cultivation explants with Agrobacterium for 4 d. E Multiple shoot induction on SI after two weeks. F Elongation of multiple shoot on SE after at least two weeks. G Elongation of multiple shoots. H Rooting on RM. I Plantlet domestication in greenhouse. J Plantlet transplanting and seed pod in greenhouse. The authors thank Prof. Wrote the paper: GT ZZ.


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Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Molybdenum cofactor Moco is required for the activities of Moco-dependant enzymes. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Introduction Molybdenum Mo forms a complex with the molybdopterin compound, which consequently forms a cofactor named molybdenum cofactor Moco. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth Soybean cultivar, Tianlong 1, was used as the recipient for genetic modification. Identification of putative transgenic plants Non-transgenic soybean plants and GmCnx1 transgenic soybean plants both produced the amplified band of GmCnx1 gene by PCR analysis, since the target gene is endogenous.